Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
PCI and Angioplasty – Percutaneous coronary intervention, is a procedure designed to re-open arteries in the heart that are partially or completely blocked by a build-up of fatty deposits due to a condition called coronary heart disease. When blood flow becomes slowed or blocked in the coronary arteries, the heart is denied oxygen and without oxygen, the heart cannot get the nutrients it needs. This will cause patients to be short of breath, experience chest pain, and puts them at a higher risk of suffering a heart attack.
Angioplasty and Stenting for Acute Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Angioplasty procedures are used to open all blocked arteries (also known as coronary arteries) in the heart, eliminating the need for more serious open-heart surgery. The dye is injected into the coronary arteries, which helps cardiologists determine any blockage present. Once located, doctors can perform an angioplasty procedure or “balloon angioplasty” with the help of a special catheter. A stent can also be placed during the procedure.
Angioplasty procedures significantly improve the oxygen and blood flow to the heart. Cardiologists typically start a normal angioplasty procedure by choosing an artery that will be designated as a catheter entry site. Once a site is already chosen, it is cleaned thoroughly using a special disinfectant. It may also be shaved before doctors can start numbing the area. A normal angioplasty procedure can usually take one to three hours, but it can vary based on the patient’s condition.
What to Expect During the Procedure
To begin, a cardiologist will insert a small and hollow plastic tube, into your artery. Patients experience some slight pressure or discomfort as the tube is inserted. It is followed through by a guidewire and a balloon catheter and is inserted very carefully all the way to the blockage. The catheter’s progress is viewed on x-ray screens and patients are able to communicate with their cardiologist during an angioplasty procedure.
It is common in a PCI and Angioplasty procedure for cardiologists to encounter clots blocking the arteries along the way. Medications are used to neutralize such clots before continuing. When the balloon catheter is in place, it is inflated and deflated in succession several times. Blood flow is briefly blocked during inflation, and patients may experience slight chest discomfort. Medicine can be given to counter the pain. An angioplasty procedure is successful once the blockage is neutralized and the blood flow is properly restored.
Depending on the blockage situation, cardiologists may decide to place stents in their patient’s arteries during an angioplasty procedure. A stent is an expandable device mounted on a catheter, similar to the device used in an angioplasty procedure. Once a stent is properly placed, it will support the artery and help keep it open for a long time. Over time, the tissue will naturally grow over the stent, which helps keep it in place.
When the Angioplasty procedure is completed, cardiologists remove the catheter but leave the tube in place for a certain time in case the artery starts closing. If patients begin to experience back pains, chest pains, and other unusual feelings after the angioplasty procedure, it may indicate the coronary arteries are starting to close up. To avoid this occurring, patients are highly encouraged to communicate regularly with their cardiologist and primary care physician to monitor their progress and identify any problems that may surface.
Garden City Hospital performs this life-saving procedure in both scheduled and emergency situations.